Introduction to Data Preparation in R10 minute read
- Course Introduction
- Who Would Be Interested In This Course?
- Software Required
- Installing Necessary R Libraries
- What is Data Preparation or Data Wrangling?
- Business and Automation Concepts To Understand
- What are Data Frames?
- Different Data Types In A Data Frame
- Reading and Writing CSV Files As Data Frames
- Understanding The Columns And Data Types Of Your Data Frame
- Creating New Columns In A Data Frame
- Filtering A Data Frame
- Selecting Columns In A Data Frame
- Grouping in R
- Summarizing A Data Frame in R
- Merging And Joining Data Frames in R
The purpose of this course is to teach you the 80/20 (Pareto Optimal) knowledge of data preparation, data wrangling, data cleaning, and data engineering tasks that are commonly used in data science and analytics projects.
We will be teaching you two popular packages in R for data preparation:
It is commonly reported that the majority of time spent by data scientists and analysts is data preparation and data wrangling.
Who Would Be Interested In This Course?
If you meet any of these criteria below, then this course would be highly interesting for you:
- You want to learn how to automate common data wrangling and data preparation tasks so you can save a lot of time and become more efficient and productive.
- You want to learn how to migrate your non-reproducible Excel files or data preparation work flows to reproducible and automated work flows so you don’t have to reverse engineer other people’s work.
- You want to get your feet wet in learning a data science and AI programming language like R to stay ahead of current technology trends
- You’re a non-technical manager and just want to understand common tasks involved in data science and analytics so you can become more data savvy.
- You’re not an analyst or data scientist but feel like learning how to automate data preparation tasks would be helpful for you in your career.
- Intermediate Knowledge of Excel
- Helpful but not required: basic knowledge of SQL
The only three tools you’ll need are:
data.tablelibraries in R
R is an open source programming language that specializes in data science, data engineering, data analysis, statistical modeling, machine learning, and artificial intelligence (AI)
RStudio is an IDE for R. An IDE stands for an “integrated development environment”, which is a software application for editing and debugging code.
You can learn more about R and RStudio and how to install each in the Remyx Course titled How To Download and Install R.
Installing Necessary R Libraries
R packages (or libraries) are collections of R functions, data, and code wrapped in a usable format. Think of them as you would as sets of Excel functions like sum() or vlookup(), which means they’re easy to use out-of-the-box with no need of low-level programming. In fact, the R function sum() does exactly the same thing as the Excel function sum().
When you first download R, it comes with a set of base packages, and thousands of others are available for download. There are currently over 10,000 packages (or libraries) available on CRAN, which is the global repository of R packages.
To install the libraries needed for this course in R (
data.table), open RStudio, copy the following R code in the Code Editor, and click Run.
R Code for Installing R Packages
# Install the dplyr and data.table libraries in R install.packages("dplyr") install.packages("data.table")
What is Data Preparation or Data Wrangling?
Business and Automation Concepts To Understand
What are Data Frames?
Think of Data Frames much like you would a spreadsheet in Excel or a table in an SQL database. A Data Frame is a data structure which organizes data into a 2-dimensional table of rows and columns.
A Data Frame in R is exactly what you expect an Excel spreadsheet to look like which is data displayed in table format with rows and columns.
Different Data Types In A Data Frame
Values inside the columns in a Data Frame are stored as different types. The most common types of data stored in a Data Frame in R are:
- Character (aka String)
- Logical (aka Boolean)
A table that describes each data type and an example of that data type is below:
|Numeric||The value inside the column is stored as a number with decimal places||19.79, 4.1119|
|Integer||The value inside the column is stored as a number without decimal places||-100, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 100|
|Character||The value inside the column is stored as a text or string||“Remyx Courses”, “artificial intelligence”|
|Logical||The value inside the column is stored as a Boolean value (ie True or False)||TRUE, FALSE|
Reading and Writing CSV Files As Data Frames
Before you can even begin the Data Preparation phase of CRISP-DM, you need to understand what data you have and what data you don’t have but need. This is called the Data Understanding phase of the CRISP-DM process model.
One common way of getting data you need is by reading in data that’s stored in tabular format in a CSV file (which stands for Comma Separated Values). A comma-separated values (CSV) file is a text file that uses a comma to separate values. Each line (or row) of the file is a data record. Each record consists of one or more columns, separated by commas. A CSV file looks like a spreadsheet when you open it and ends with the .csv filename extension.
The dataset we will be using for this course comes from the University of California Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository. The link to the dataset can be found by clicking here. The data contains transactions occurring between January 12, 2010 and September 12, 2011 for a UK-based and registered non-store online retail company. The company mainly sells unique all-occasion gifts, and many of its customers are wholesalers.
We’ve uploaded the dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository to Dropbox specifically for this course so it can be easily read directly into R as a CSV. This eliminates the need for a manual download of the Excel file to your local directory, saving it as .CSV, and then writing code in R to read from that specific directory. We’ve basically made the process easy for you.
We like this dataset because it looks similar to datasets you’d encounter in real-world business settings. Typically, you’d be able to access transaction datasets like this one from your company’s data warehouse.
Reading In/Importing CSV Files
To read in the Online Retail CSV dataset as a Data Frame in R, you’d use the
fread function from the
data.table package in R. The name
fread stands for “fast read”, and it’s Remix Institute’s only recommended way of reading in CSV files. The code for doing that is below:
R Code for Reading In CSVs
# Read In/Import into R the Online Retail CSV dataset from Remix Institute's Dropbox online_retail_data = data.table::fread("https://www.dropbox.com/s/ygecmz70oy5ch9i/Online%20Retail.csv?dl=1", header = TRUE, stringsAsFactors = FALSE)
The string inside the quotation marks is the location of the CSV file you want to read in. The
header = TRUE argument means that the first row of the CSV file contains the column (header) names.
Writing/Exporting CSV Files
To write out a Data Frame in R as a CSV file to a local directory, you’d use the
fwrite function from the
data.table package in R. The name
fwrite stands for “fast write”, and it’s Remix Institute’s only recommended way of writing out CSV files. The code for doing that is below:
R Code for Writing to CSV
# Write Out/Export an R Data Frame as CSV to your local directory # 1. Replace online_retail_data with the name of the dataframe you want to export # 2. Replace the string inside the quotations to the location of the directory and filename you want to export to data.table::fwrite(online_retail_data, "C:/Users/RemixStudent/Documents/online_retail_data.csv")
Understanding The Columns And Data Types Of Your Data Frame
According to University of California Irvine Machine Learning Repository’s website, the column and data type information for the dataset is as follows:
|InvoiceNo||Invoice number. Nominal, a 6-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each transaction. If this code starts with letter ‘c’, it indicates a cancellation.||Character|
|StockCode||Product (item) code. Nominal, a 5-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each distinct product.||Character|
|Description||Product (item) name. Nominal.||Character|
|Quantity||The quantities of each product (item) per transaction. Numeric.||Integer|
|InvoiceDate||Invoice Date and time. Numeric, the day and time when each transaction was generated||Integer|
|UnitPrice||Unit price. Numeric, Product price per unit in sterling.||Integer|
|CustomerID||Customer number. Nominal, a 5-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each customer.||Integer|
|Country||Country name. Nominal, the name of the country where each customer resides||Character|
Creating New Columns In A Data Frame
You’ll notice, based on UCI’s documentation, that any invoice numbers that start with ‘c’ are cancellations. We’re going to create a new column in the Data Frame called CancelledInvoiceFlag which indicates if the invoice was cancelled. We give it a value of 1 if the invoice is cancelled and a value of 0 if it’s not cancelled.
In the R code below, we show two ways for creating new columns in R (see R code comments). You can use either way you prefer. Both ways perform the exact same operation. Notice the
substring function which starts at position 1 of the character value and ends at position 1 of the character value in order to extract the first letter of the InvoiceNo.
Also, notice the
ifelse function which acts exactly like the IF-THEN formula in Excel.
To create new columns in R, the syntax to use can either be
dataframe[ , "column_name"] where
dataframe is the name of your dataframe and
column_name is the name of the column you want to create.
R Code for Creating a New Column called “CancelledInvoiceFlag”
# First Way - create a flag for cancelled invoices online_retail_data[ , "CancelledInvoiceFlag"] = ifelse(substring(online_retail_data[ , "InvoiceNo"], 1, 1) == 'C', 1, 0) # or Second Way - create a flag for cancelled invoices online_retail_data$CancelledInvoiceFlag = ifelse(substring(online_retail_data$InvoiceNo, 1, 1) == 'C', 1, 0) # view the dataset to see the new column View(online_retail_data)
We’ll also create another column called NegativeQuantityFlag which indicates if the value in the Quantity column is negative. We give it a value of 1 if the Quantity column is negative and a value of 0 if the Quantity column is not negative. Like we did for “CancelledInvoiceFlag”, the R code below shows two ways for creating the new column in R (see R code comments). You can use either way you prefer. Both ways perform the exact same operation.
R Code for Creating a New Column called “NegativeQuantityFlag”
# First Way - create a flag for negative quantities online_retail_data[, "NegativeQuantityFlag"] = ifelse(online_retail_data[, "Quantity"] < 0, 1, 0) # or Second Way - create a flag for negative quantities online_retail_data$NegativeQuantityFlag = ifelse(online_retail_data$Quantity < 0, 1, 0) # view the dataset to see the new column View(online_retail_data)
Filtering A Data Frame
Filtering a data frame is the process of taking a subset or smaller part of the full dataset based on certain conditions that you specify. The conditions are applied to the columns of the data frame. You’ve probably worked with filters in Excel so you’d be familiar with the concept.
Based on the new columns we created in the “Creating New Columns In A Data Frame” section, we’re going to filter our data frame based on specific conditions in those columns.
In any real world business scenario, sometimes it’s important to remove any cancellations or refunds in your analysis and model. You don’t want to attribute sales to the transaction if the customer cancelled the order or returned the product for a refund. For our first filter, we will be removing cancellations from the dataset.
Also, if you study the dataset, you’ll notice that there are some non-cancelled invoices where Quantity is a negative number. Many times, these non-cancelled invoices with a negative Quantity number have a StockCode but no Description or CustomerID. These look like bad data points and should be removed from the dataset before analysis or modeling. For our second filter, we will be removing records with a negative Quantity.
We’ll show you 3 ways to filter a data frame in R. The first two ways is by using the
data.table package in R, and the third way is by using the
dplyr package in R. You can any one of the three ways that you prefer. They all perform the exact same operation. However, the
data.table package can perform these operations much faster than the
dplyr package. So if you’re optimizing for speed and performance, you should use the